What is Infertility

MODERN VIEW-Infertility


Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive, carry or deliver a healthy child. There are many reasons why a couple may not be able to conceive, or may not be able to conceive without medical assistance.

The International Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID) considers a couple to be infertile if:

  • they have not conceived after a year of unprotected intercourse, or after six months in women over 35;
  • there is incapability to carry a pregnancy to term.

Healthy couples in their mid-20s having regular sex have a one-in-four chance of getting pregnant in any given month.

AYURVEDIC VIEW – infertility

It is called Vandhyatva (Infertility) or a woman a Vandhya (infertile) in Ayurved.

Vandhya : The word Vandhya is derived from the root Vandha with Yaka suffix which means underproductive , fruitless , useless, childless woman and barren. A woman who has hindrance of any kind to the normal process of conception is called in Ayurved as "Vandhya."

Definition of a Vandhya (infertile)woman: The woman whose Artava is perished is called vandhya. (Su. U. 38/10)S According to definition of a woman or "Stri" - i.e. one who lodges a Garbha or fetus is known as Stri. In Charaka Samhita it is mentioned that woman is the origin of progeny. She is called mother only when she gives birth to a child. To attain the motherhood is the aim of every woman

Terma of vandhyatva

Vasha The woman who does not conceive even if she is submissive.

Vandhya The woman in whom there is hindrance of any kind of normal process of conception is called Vandhya.

Avatoka The woman who has missed abortion is Avatoka.

Avakeshi The woman who is devoid of Putrasukha and Prasavasukaha is Avakeshi.

Stravad The woman who miscarriage frequently is termed as Stravad Garbha.

Aphala The woman without progeny is Aphala.

Classification of Vandhyatva

Harita Samhita : 6 type of Vandhyatva has been described :

  1. Never conceiving woman due to garbhakoshaparasanga.
  2. Kakavandhya – one child infertility.
  3. Anapatya – no child.
  4. Mritvatsa – repeated still birth.
  5. Garbhasravi – repeated abortion.
  6. Bala kshaya – infertility due to loss of bala – (Ha. S. Tri. Sth. 48/1-6)

Rasa Ratna Samuchya : 9 type of vandhyatva has been classified :

Adivandhya, Vataja, Pittaja,Kaphaja, Sannipataja, Bhutaja, Daivaja, Raktaja, Abhicharaja (R.R. Samu. 32/1-3).

Vandhya Shabdakalpadrum

8 types has been described

  1. Tripakshi : One who has 45 days of menstrual cycle.
  2. Subhrati : The vandhya who has dystrophy of internal genital organs and discoloration of skin all over the body.
  3. Sajja : The vandhya has irregular menstrual cycle.
  4. Trimukhi : Vandhya has excessive watery discharge from yoni and has no satisfaction for coitus and diet both.
  5. Vyaghrini : One child infertility.
  6. Baki : Vandhya has red discharge from yoni for 8 to 10 days. It is incurable.
  7. Kamalini : This vandhya has continues watery discharge from yoni and she is incurable.
  8. Vyaktini : The disease similar to diabetes mellitus in woman is described as Vyaktini Vandhya.

– (Vandhya Kalpdrum Stri Chiki. Samu. 46-50)

By observing this classification it can be said that Acharya has mentioned every type of infertility with their causative factors.


In Atharvaveda – "Purandhatriyosha"

Kautilya Arthashastra

Avatoka The woman who has missed abortion is Avatoka.

Samhita Kala

Acharya Harita has also described 6 types of Vandhya and specific etiology for each of them.

Charaka (Charaka Sharira 4/30 and Charaka Chikitsa 30,)

Vagbhata Both Vagbhattas have described essential factors for fertility.

Harita Samhita prognosis of the Vandhyatva individuals has been described.

Madhava Nidana The types of Vandhyatva have been described.

Kashyapa Samhita Under chapter of Jatiharani one is “Pushpaghni” is mentioned

Rasa Ratna Samuchay – types and treatments are described

In other ayurvedic literatures like Yoga Ratnakara, Chakradatta, Bhaishajya Ratnavali Vandhyatva has been described

In other literatures In vasavarjiyam, Vandhyakalapadrum, Kama Shastra the definition and treatment of vandhyatva have been described